Related Conditions


Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease that can infect the body in the tonsils, nose, or throat and/or the skin. While this was a common childhood disease in the 1930s, a vaccine against diphtheria has now made it very rare in the U.S. and other developing countries.


A parasite causes malaria; a bite from an infected Anopheles mosquito passes the parasite to humans. After the parasites enter the body by a mosquito bite, they disappear from the circulating blood within an hour and gather in the liver. After several days, infected red blood cells (RBCs) emerge from the liver and infect other RBCs.


Measles, also known as rubeola, is a very contagious viral illness. It has a distinct rash and a fever. It is usually spread through direct contact with droplets from coughs or sneezes from a person with measles.


Pneumonia is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. It is a serious infection in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.


Poliomyelitis, most often called polio, is spread by a virus and can cause paralysis. The disease is now rare in the U.S. because of a vaccine against the virus. However, polio still exists in a few countries.


Tetanus is a sometimes fatal disease of the central nervous system, caused by a poison (toxin) made by the tetanus bacterium which usually enters the body through an open wound. Tetanus bacteria live in soil, manure, the human intestine and other places.

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever is a rare viral disease caused by the bite of a mosquito. Symptoms may include fever; flu-like symptoms, such as headache, vomiting and backache; bleeding of the gums; bloody urine; and yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice).