Cervical cancer

Also known as: Cancer, cervical

Outline of female pelvis showing uterus, cervix, and vagina.

Cancer occurs when cells in the body change and grow out of control. These cells can form lumps called tumors. Cancer that starts in cells of the cervix is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower end of the uterus. It connects the uterus to the vagina.

Cervical cancer can spread from the cervix to other parts of the body. This spread is called metastasis. The more cancer spreads, the harder it is to treat.

Types of cervical cancer

When cells in the cervix begin to grow in ways that are not normal, it is called dysplasia. Dysplasia is not cancer, but it can lead to cancer if not treated. Once cancer forms, there are 3 possible types:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma. This starts in the thin, flat cells on the surface of the cervix. This is by far the most common form of cervical cancer.

  • Adenocarcinoma. This starts in gland cells of the cervix.

  • Mixed carcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. This is cancer in both types of cells.

What causes cervical cancer?

In most women, cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infection is very common and often goes away on its own. But in some cases, over time, HPV may lead to cervical cancer. HPV infection is strongly linked to cervical cancer. But it's important to know that most women with HPV don’t develop cervical cancer.

Other risk factors include:

  • Smoking

  • Other lifestyle factors such as diet and activity

  • Being overweight

  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives

  • Having chlamydia or herpes 

  • Having a weak immune system

  • Having multiple full-term pregnancies

  • Having a full-term pregnancy before age 17

  • Having a family history of cervical cancer

Talk with your healthcare provider about your own risk for cervical cancer.

Can cervical cancer be prevented?

Regular testing with a Pap test, with or without an HPV test, can help find cervical cell changes before they become cancer. Treating these changes can keep cancer from starting. Because cervical cancer grows slowly, regular testing can also help find this cancer early--when it's small and easier to treat.

Talk to your healthcare provider about the cervical cancer screening schedule that's best for you.

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

In early stages of cervical cancer, most women will not have any symptoms. As the tumor grows or the cancer spreads, the most common symptoms are:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding

  • Vaginal discharge

  • Pain during or bleeding after sex

These symptoms may seem like other conditions, including infection. See your healthcare provider if you have any of these symptoms. Ask how often you need a Pap test.

How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

Cervical cancer is usually found during a screening Pap test. During a Pap test, cells are taken from a woman’s cervix and checked for changes that may signal dysplasia or cancer. This can help catch cervical cancer early, when it is easiest to treat. Have a Pap test as often as your healthcare provider suggests.

How is cervical cancer treated?

You and your healthcare provider will discuss a treatment plan that’s best for your needs. Treatment options may include:

  • Surgery. The part of the cervix with cancer may be removed. Or the entire cervix and the uterus may be removed (total hysterectomy).

  • Radiation therapy. This uses directed rays of energy to kill cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy. This uses strong medicine to kill cancer cells. It may be used along with radiation therapy.

  • Targeted therapy. This uses medicines (not chemotherapy medicines) that are designed to attack and kill cancer cells and limit the damage to healthy cells.