Valve repair and replacement

Also known as: Aortic valve repair and replacement, Mitral valve repair and replacement

Valve replacement surgery is an open-heart procedure in which the damaged valve is removed and replaced with a new valve.

A variety of replacement valves are available. Some valves are made of man-made substances. Others are made out of animal tissue, often from a pig.

During valve surgery, the doctor makes a large incision through the breastbone (sternum). Blood is circulated outside of the body through a machine to add oxygen to it (cardiopulmonary bypass or heart-lung machine). The heart may be cooled to slow or stop the heartbeat so the heart is protected from damage while surgery is done to replace the valve. The damaged aortic valve is removed and replaced with an artificial heart valve.

Rarely, a more complex operation is performed. The aortic valve may be replaced with one of the person's other heart valves (usually the pulmonic valve between the lower right heart chamber and the opening to the artery that goes to the lungs). Since the pulmonic valve is used in the heart to replace the aortic valve, an artificial valve is implanted to replace the pulmonary valve. This type of valve surgery may be used in people younger than 25 years of age who are more likely to benefit the most from this difficult surgery; the pulmonic valve is more durable, grows with the person, and has a lower risk of infection.

Valve replacement surgery is high-risk for people who have a failing left ventricle and who have had a heart attack.

Proprietary Health Article

Providence cardiologists replace valve on pregnant woman

In January, a team from the Providence Heart and Vascular Institute performed a transcatheter aortic valve replacement, TAVR, on 23-year-old Katie Dickens. She was born with an abnormal heart valve. Five months after the procedure, Jasha was born without complications. It was a first in the northwest and perhaps in the U.S.

Exploring the next-generation transcatheter valve

Just months after becoming the only center in Oregon to offer the new Sapien heart valve, Providence will begin testing the next generation of this breakthrough device. By Todd A. Caulfield, M.D., medical director, Providence Valve Center