Related Conditions

Disorders considered to be neurodevelopmental in origin or to have neurodevelopmental consequences when they occur in infancy and childhood include autism and autism spectrum disorders, such as Asperger’s syndrome; traumatic brain injury (including congenital injuries, such as those that cause cerebral palsy); communication, speech and language disorders; genetic disorders, such as fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome; epilepsy; fetal alcohol syndrome; learning disorders; and neurological disorders.

Apraxia

Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned (familiar) movements on command, even though the command is...

Hypotonia

Symptoms and findings associated with the group of neuromuscular disorders formerly known as benign congenital hypotonia include low muscle tone...

Ataxia

Hereditary ataxias are a group of neurological disorders (ataxias) of varying degrees of rarity that are inherited, in contrast to a related group...

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a group of problems that affects body movement and posture. It is related to a brain injury or to problems with brain growth....

Stroke

A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or bursts. Without blood and the oxygen it carries, part of the brain starts to die....

Neonatal brain hemorrhage

Complications of premature birth include bleeding in the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage, or IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). IVH is...

Motor development delay

A motor skill is the ability to move your body to carry out a task. Motor skills require the brain, nerves, skeleton, joints and muscles to work...

Myotonic dystrophy

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder that affects both smooth and skeletal muscles and may affect the...

Muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare muscle disorder, but it is one of the most frequent genetic conditions, affecting approximately 1 in...

Trisomy 13

Trisomy 13 syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder in which all or a portion of chromosome 13 appears three times (trisomy) rather than twice in...

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome typically causes low muscle tone, short stature if not treated with growth hormone, incomplete sexual development and a...

Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome is a rare genetic neurological disorder characterized by the following: severe developmental delays and learning disabilities;...

Velocardiofacial syndrome

Velocardiofacial syndrome, (VCFS), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by abnormalities of the head and facial (craniofacial) area, heart...

Tuberous sclerosis

Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic multisystem disorder that is typically apparent shortly after birth. The disorder may be characterized by...

Sensory integration dysfunction

Children with sensory integration dysfunction have difficulty processing information from the senses (touch, movement, smell, taste, vision and...

Optic nerve hypoplasia

The syndrome of optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), also known as septooptic dysplasia (SOD) or DeMorsier syndrome, is a congenital disorder...

Neurofibromatosis type 1

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also called von Recklinghausen's disease, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the development of...

Autism

Autism is a brain disorder that often makes it hard to communicate with and relate to others. With autism, the different areas of the brain fail...

Brachial plexus palsy

Brachial plexus palsy, also known as Erb's palsy, is a paralysis or weakness of the arm caused by an injury to one or more nerves that control and...

Cleft palate

Cleft palate is a treatable birth defect. It happens when the roof of the baby's mouth (palate) does not develop normally during pregnancy, leaving...

Chiari malformation

Arnold-Chiari malformation is a rare malformation of the brain that is sometimes, but not always, apparent at birth. It is characterized by...

Tethered spinal cord syndrome

Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a disorder characterized by progressive neurological deterioration that results from compression of the lowermost...

Congenital hydrocephalus

Congenital hydrocephalus is a condition present at birth in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collects within the brain. The brain's...

Developmental delay

Developmental delays are present when a child does not demonstrate abilities and skills commonly found in other children in the same age group....

Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) is a decreased ability to think and learn. It is caused by a problem with how the...

Maternal alcohol or drug use

Alcohol and drugs can cause problems for you during your pregnancy and when it is time for your baby to be born. They can also affect your baby...

Shaken baby syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a form of child abuse. It refers to brain injury that happens to the child. It occurs when someone shakes a baby or...

Carnitine deficiency syndrome

Carnitine Deficiency Syndrome is a rare metabolic disorder that may be inherited in some cases, or occur as a result of other metabolic disorders....

Coffin-Siris syndrome

Coffin-Siris syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that may be evident at birth (congenital). The disorder may be characterized by feeding...

Costello syndrome

Costello syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body (multisystem disorder). Costello syndrome is...

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome, also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth delays before and after birth...

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder that is apparent at birth (congenital). Associated symptoms and findings typically...

Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect. Most children who have spina bifida do not have problems from it. It occurs when the bones of the spine...

Lissencephaly

Classical lissencephaly, also known as lissencephaly type I, is a brain malformation that may occur as an isolated abnormality (isolated...

Schizencephaly

Schizencephaly is an extremely rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.

Communication, speech and language disorders

A child's failure to reach speech and language milestones as expected may be a "red flag," or warning, indicating a speech and language...

Down syndrome

Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children with Down syndrome tend to have...

Epilepsy

Epilepsy causes repeated seizures and is one of the most common neurological condition. The seizures are caused by bursts of electrical activity...

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a characteristic pattern of mental and physical birth defects that results from maternal use of alcohol during...

Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is characterized by moderate mental retardation in affected males and mild mental retardation in affected females.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease in how well you can hear. Depending on the cause, it can range from mild to severe and can be...

Pediatric obesity

Excessive weight in children and adolescents is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In the United States, 13 percent of children aged 6 to...

Failure to thrive

Failure to thrive is a term used to describe a child who seems to be gaining weight or height more slowly than other children of his or her age and...

Dysphagia

Difficulty swallowing is also called dysphagia. It is usually a sign of a problem with your throat or esophagus—the muscular tube that moves food...

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Topic Overview This topic is about gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults. For information on reflux in babies and children, see...

Neurofibromatosis type 2

Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF-2) is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily characterized by benign (noncancerous) tumors of the nerves that...

Primary craniosynostosis

Primary craniosynostosis is a rare disorder of the skull that may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive genetic trait....

Congenital torticollis

Torticollis, also known as "wryneck," is a condition in which your baby's head is tilted. The chin points to one shoulder, while the head tilts...

Premature birth

Pregnancy normally lasts about 40 weeks. A baby born 3 or more weeks early is premature. Babies who are born closer to their due dates tend to...

Rett's syndrome

Rett's disorder, also called Rett's syndrome, is a brain disorder characterized by normal early development (until sometime between 5 months and...

Traumatic brain injury

A concussion is a brain injury that is caused by a sudden blow to the head or to the body. The blow shakes the brain inside the skull, which...