Related Conditions

Disorders considered to be neurodevelopmental in origin or to have neurodevelopmental consequences when they occur in infancy and childhood include autism and autism spectrum disorders, such as Asperger’s syndrome; traumatic brain injury (including congenital injuries, such as those that cause cerebral palsy); communication, speech and language disorders; genetic disorders, such as fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome; epilepsy; fetal alcohol syndrome; learning disorders; and neurological disorders.

Hypotonia

Symptoms and findings associated with the group of neuromuscular disorders formerly known as benign congenital hypotonia include low muscle tone...

Ataxia

Ataxia means without coordination. People with ataxia lose muscle control in their arms and legs. This may lead to a lack of balance, coordination and trouble walking. Ataxia may affect the fingers, hands, arms, legs, body, speech and even eye movements.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a broad term that describes a group of non-progressive brain (neurological) disorders that cause the loss of normal motor function, body movement, muscle control, muscle coordination, reflex, posture, and balance.

Stroke

Stroke - where a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or bursts - is a serious condition that requires clinical care by a physician or other health care professional; brain damage can occur within minutes of having a stroke.

Neonatal brain hemorrhage

Complications of premature birth include bleeding in the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage, or IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). IVH is...

Motor development delay

A motor skill is the ability to move your body to carry out a task. Motor skills require the brain, nerves, skeleton, joints and muscles to work...

Myotonic dystrophy

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant, multi-system disorder that affects both smooth and skeletal muscles and may affect the...

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a broad term that describes a genetic (inherited) disorder of the muscles; it causes the muscles in the body to become very weak.

Velocardiofacial syndrome

Velocardiofacial syndrome, (VCFS), a rare genetic disorder, is characterized by abnormalities of the head and facial (craniofacial) area, heart...

Sensory integration dysfunction

Children with sensory integration dysfunction have difficulty processing information from the senses (touch, movement, smell, taste, vision and...

Optic nerve hypoplasia

The syndrome of optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), also known as septooptic dysplasia (SOD) or DeMorsier syndrome, is a congenital disorder...

Neurofibromatosis type 1

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), also called von Recklinghausen's disease, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the development of...

Brachial plexus palsy

Brachial plexus palsy, also known as Erb's palsy, is a paralysis or weakness of the arm caused by an injury to one or more nerves that control and...

Tethered spinal cord syndrome

Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a disorder characterized by progressive neurological deterioration that results from compression of the lowermost...

Developmental delay

Developmental delays are present when a child does not demonstrate abilities and skills commonly found in other children in the same age group....

Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (formerly called mental retardation) is a decreased ability to think and learn. It is caused by a problem with how the...

Maternal alcohol or drug use

Alcohol and drugs can cause problems for you during your pregnancy and when it is time for your baby to be born. They can also affect your baby...

Coffin-Siris syndrome

Coffin-Siris syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that may be evident at birth (congenital). The disorder may be characterized by feeding...

Costello syndrome

Costello syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that affects multiple organ systems of the body (multisystem disorder). Costello syndrome is...

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome, also known as Williams-Beuren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by growth delays before and after birth...

Cornelia de Lange syndrome

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare genetic disorder that is apparent at birth (congenital). Associated symptoms and findings typically...

Spina Bifida

Spina bifida is a is a type of neural tube birth defect that causes problems with the spine, spinal cord and the surrounding nerves. It can cause part of the spinal cord and areas around it to develop outside of the body.

Lissencephaly

Classical lissencephaly, also known as lissencephaly type I, is a brain malformation that may occur as an isolated abnormality (isolated...

Schizencephaly

Schizencephaly is an extremely rare developmental birth defect characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy causes repeated seizures and is one of the most common neurological condition. The seizures are caused by bursts of electrical activity...

Hearing Loss

Hearing loss is a medical disorder that affects nearly 36 million adults in the United States. Many things can cause impaired hearing, including tinnitus, presbycusis (age-related hearing loss), and hereditary causes, among others.

Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive is defined as slowed down or arrested physical growth and is associated with abnormal growth and development.

Dysphagia

When something goes wrong with the muscles that direct swallowing, it’s called dysphagia and it can lead to aspiration—food or other material entering the airways or lungs.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is a digestive disorder that occurs when gastric acid from the stomach flows back up into the food pipe or esophagus. Heartburn is the most common symptom of GERD.

Neurofibromatosis type 2

Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF-2) is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily characterized by benign (noncancerous) tumors of the nerves that...

Rett's syndrome

Rett's disorder, also called Rett's syndrome, is a brain disorder characterized by normal early development (until sometime between 5 months and...

Concussion

A concussion can be caused by a direct blow to the head, neck, face or somewhere else on the body with the force being transmitted to the head. This may cause you to lose consciousness – be "knocked out" - but not always.